English Grammar Notes Part -5( Preposition)

PREPOSITION

INTRODUCTION

Preposition is a word that shows relation between noun or pronoun and the other words in sentence.

e.g. in, on, at, to, with, under, above, into, by, of etc

Preposition is always used before a noun or pronoun and shows the relation of the noun or pronoun to the other words in sentence. The following examples will help in better understanding.

TYPES OF PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions show many relations (for different nouns) in sentence. On the basis of relation they show, preposition may be divided into following categories.

  • Preposition for time e.g. in, on, at, etc.
  • Preposition for place e.g. in, on, at, etc
  • Preposition for direction e.g. to, towards, into, through etc.
  • Preposition for agent e.g. by
  • Preposition for device, instrument or machines. e.g. on, by, with, etc.
  • Prepositions used after verbs to make prepositional verb. e.g. look at, look after, laugh at.

Example.

Subject + VerbPrepositionNoun
The cat was sleepingontable
He livesinParis
She lookedatStranger.
He will comeinJanuary.
Wedding ceremony will be heldon20th December.
I was waitingforyou
Someone is knockingatThe door.
She camebybus.

 

Prepositions show many relations (for different nouns) in sentence. On the basis of relation they show, preposition may be divided into following categories.

  • Preposition for time g. in, on, at, etc.
  • Preposition for place g. in, on, at, etc
  • Preposition for direction g. to, towards, into, through etc.
  • Preposition for agent g. by
  • Preposition for device, instrument or machines. g. on, by, with, etc.
  • Prepositions used after verbs to make prepositional verb. e.g. look at, look after, laugh at

 

RULES

Rule 1 : Across

Across – On the opposite side of

My friend lives across the river.✔

Across – From one side to another

The boy swam across the river ✔

Across – both sides

He threw the luggage across his shoulders ✔

Come Across – means meet accidentally / suddenly

When I was going to market, I came across an old friend. ✔

Rule 2 : Between

Used for two persons / things.

She is sitting between you and me. ✔

Among

Used with more than two persons / things

The principal distributed prizes among the winners ✔

Rule 3 : During

During – denotes duration.

During the war, many people suffered hardship. ✔

We go to Darjeeling during summer every year. ✔

Rule 4 : From

From – is used with past / future tenses.

I stayed there from January to April. ✔

I will start my preparation from Monday next. ✔

Rule 5 : Of

Of – denotes origin / cause

She comes of a rich family (origin) ✔

He died of Malaria (cause) but she died in an accident. ✔

Off – denotes ‘separation’

A button has come off. ✔

He is off duty today. ✔

Rule 6 : After a preposition, a pronoun under objective case should be used.

He depends on I. ☓

He depends on me. ✔

Rule 7 : When two words are connected by ‘and / or’ etc., the prepositions should be mentioned clearly to be used with them.

He was surprised at as well as pleased with her performance. ✔

She is conscious and engaged in her work. ☓

She is conscious of and engaged in her work ✔

Rule 8 : After transitive verbs such as ‘Discuss/Describe/reach/order/tell/demand/attach/resemble/ridicule etc. no preposition is used. The verbs directly take an object.

The poet describes about the beauty of nature.☓

The poet describes the beauty of nature. ✔

He ordered for two cups of tea. ☓

He ordered two cups of tea. ✔

Rule 9 : After the verbs “Say / suggest / propose / speak / explain / reply / complain / talk / listen / write” the proposition “to” should be used if any object is used.

He did not reply me. ☓

He did not reply to me. ✔

He suggested her that she should eat less. ☓

He suggested to her that she should eat less. ✔

Rule 10 : Since/ For

Since – Denotes point of time

For – denotes period of time.

They should be used with present tense or the present perfect continuous tense / past perfect tense / past perfect continuous tenses.

I know her since 2011. ☓

I have known her since 2011. ✔

He is working in the bank for the past 3 years. ☓

He has been working in the bank for the past 3 years. ✔

Rule 11 : After the verb “Enter” the preposition “into” should not be used except when it is used with reference to agreement or conversation.

He entered into the premises without any permission. ☓

He entered the premises without any permission. ✔

They entered a hot discussion. ☓

They entered into a hot discussion. ✔

Rule 12 : Wait

Wait for – Await.

He is awaiting for the reply. ☓

He is awaiting the reply. ✔

Despite – inspite of.

Despite of his hard work, he failed in the examination. ☓

Despite his hard work he failed in the examination. ✔

This book comprises 5 chapters. ✔

This book consists of 5 chapters. ✔

Rule 13 : Dispose of

Dispose of – Sell away.

He disposed off his scooter. ☓

He disposed of his scooter.  ✔