We are sharing English Grammar Notes for SSC and IBPS Examination
A word that can function as a noun phrase used by itself and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g. I, you ) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g. she, it, this ).
1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Refers to a specificperson or thing that changesbits form to indicate person, number,gender and case.
A. Subjective perosnal pronouns-eg- you, she, he, it
B. Objective perosnal pronouns- eg- her, him, you, me
C. Possessive perosnal pronouns- eg- mine, yours, hers
2. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: Reflexive pronouns are used when a person or thing acts on itself, for example, John cut himself. In English they all end in -self or -selves and must refer to a noun phrase elsewhere in the same clause
3. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: Possessive pronouns are used to indicate possession or ownership. Some occur as independent noun phrases: mine, yours, hers, ours, yours, theirs. An example is: Those clothes are mine.
4. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: Indefinite pronouns, the largest group of pronouns, refer to one or more unspecified persons or things. One group in English includes compounds of some-, any-, every- and no- with -thing, -one and -body, for example: Anyone can do that. Another group, including many, more, both, and most, can appear alone or followed by of.
5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, what, which and that) refer back to people or things previously mentioned: People who smoke should quit now.
6. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. In reference to a person, one may use who (subject), whom (object) or whose (possessive); for example, Who did that?
7. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: Demonstrative pronouns (in English, this, that and their plurals these, those) often distinguish their targets by pointing or some other indication of position; for example, I’ll take these.
1. A Pronoun in the nominative form should be compared with the same form of the pronoun.
Eg- He is better than I (am) (Two Nominatives are compared)
2. A Pronoun in the objective case is used after “Let / Between / Any Preposition”
Eg- Let you and me play (You and me are objects)
3. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it should be used in the singular form.
Eg- The herd is grazing in the field. (As a Whole)
4. When two singular nouns are joined by “and”, refer to to the same person, the pronoun used in their place should be singular in form.
Eg- The Collector and Magistrate has done his best.
5. A singular pronoun should be used when two singular nouns are joined by either or / neither nor
Eg- Either Ravi or Gopal should give his presentation
6. A pronoun in the plural form should be used when two nouns of different members are joined by “or” or “nor”
Eg- Either the Principal or his teachers have attended their duty
7. The distributive pronouns “Either / Neither / None / Any / No one” are used with singular verbs.
Either / Neither – Used for two Person / Things
None / No one / Any – Used for more than two person / things.
a. Either of the two girls is diligent.
b. Neither of the brothers is handsome.
c. None of the four sisters is sincere.
d. Any of the four men can do it.
8. The Reciprocal pronouns “Each other / One another”
Each other – For two persons
One another – For more than two persons.
The two sister hate each other.
The five brother love one another.
9. The word “Who” as a relative pronoun is used in the nominative case, takes a verb.
Eg- The people who smoke and drink do not survive long