We are sharing English Grammar Notes for SSC and IBPS Examination
VERB AND TENSE
A verb is a kind of word (part of speech) that tells about an action or a state. It is the main part of a sentence as every sentence has a verb. In English, verbs are the only kind of word that changes to show past or present tense.
TYPES OF VERBS
English has two main kinds of verbs: normal verbs (called lexical verbs) and auxiliary verbs. The difference between them is mainly in where they can go in a sentence. Some verbs are in both groups, but there are very few auxiliary verbs. There are also two kinds of auxiliary verbs: modal verbs and non-modal verbs.
The table below shows the auxiliaries a number of other verbs.
Kinds of English verbs
auxiliary verbs lexical verbs
modal verbs Can you play the piano? I fell
I will not be there I didn’t fall
Shall we go I had breakfast.
Yes, you may I’m playing soccer.
You must be joking Must you make that noise?
non-modal verbs Have you seen him? Have you seen him?
I did see it I did see it
He is sleeping He is sleeping
Examples of auxiliary verbs:
To do (do, does, did)
To be (am, is, are, was, were): Creates a progressive tense
To have (have, has, had): Creates a perfect tense
Examples of modal auxiliaries are:
Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Shall, Should
Auxiliary verbs also inflect for negation. Usually this is done by adding not or n’t.
You shouldn’t be here.
He isn’t at home.
We haven’t started yet.
Use of the auxiliary do
I do talk (Present)
I did go (Past)
It is also used in the negative when no other auxiliary verbs are used.
I don’t talk (Present)
I didn’t go (Past)
Tense is mainly used to say when the verb happens: in the past, present, or future. In order to explain and understand tense, it is useful to imagine time as a line on which past tense, present tense and future tense are positioned.
Aspect usually shows us things like whether the action is finished or not, or if something happens regularly. English has two aspects: progressive and perfect. Aspect is usually shown by using participle verb forms. Aspect can combine with present or past tense.
English uses the gerund-participle, usually together with the auxiliary be (and its forms am, is, are, was, and were) to show the progressive aspect.
I’m playing. (present progressive)
He was solvingMathematics last night. (past progressive)
He will be going to the shop tomorrow (future progressive)
I’ve seen him twice. (present perfect)
I had lived there for three years. (past perfect)
The past perfect can be used to express an unrealized hope, wish, etc.
She had wanted to buy him a gift but he refused.
1. If the subject is of the third person, singular number (He, She, It) add ‘S’ or ‘es / ies’ to the first form of the verb to make it singular number.
Eg- He loves his parents
The dog barks at the people.
2. The following verbs are not usually used in the continuous form. See / Smell / Feel / Hear / Notice / Recognize / See / Think / Agree / Believe / Consider / Remember / Hope
Eg- The flower is smelling sweet (X)
The flower smells sweet (✔)
3. The present perfect tense should not be used with adverbs indicating past time. Instead the simple past tense should be used.
Eg- I have seen a film last night (☓)
I saw a film last night.( ✔)
4. The present perfect tense with “For or Since” is used to express an action began at some time in the past and is still continuing upto the time of speaking or just finished.
Eg- It is raining for last two days (☓)
It has been raining for last two days. ( ✔)
5. The present perfect continuous Tense” is also used for actions began in the past and are still continuing.
Eg- I am learningmusic since an year(☓)
I have been learning music since an year. ✔
6. After negative sentences, the question tag used should be in an ordinary interrogative form.
Eg- She didn’t like that book, didn’t she? ☓
She did not like that book, did she? ✔
7. After Positive Statements, we use the negative interrogative.
Eg- I am a student, Am I? ☓
I am a student, Aren’t I? ✔
8. When the verb in the principal clause is in a past tense, the verbs in the subordinate clauses are normally in the Past Tense.
Eg- He said that He will pass the examination. ☓
He said that he would pass the examination. ✔